Measurement and optimization of cutting forces, surface roughness and temperature in turning of AZ91 Mg alloy
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This study presents the experimental and statistical examination of machinability of AZ91 alloy, in terms of cutting forces (Fc, Ff, and Fp), surface roughness (Ra) and cutting temperature (T). In the first step, test samples have been produced using the casting method and the microstructures of these samples have been characterized by SEM and EDS. Secondly, the turning tests have been performed in CNC turning at three different cutting speeds (200, 300, and 400 m/min), three different feed rates (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mm/rev), and three different depths of cut (1, 1.5, and 2 mm). Thereafter, the turning simulations have been performed by Deform 3D software. Finally, experiment results were statistically analyzed using Taguchi, Anova, and regression analysis. The outcomes of this study show that the feed rate is the most significant parameter with 69.43, 90.04, 88.53, and 96.22% effect rates on the cutting force components (Fc, Ff, and Fp) and surface roughness (Ra) respectively, while the cutting speed is the most significant parameter with 70.83% effect rates on the cutting temperature. There is an average of 4.5% deviation between the experimental and simulation results of Fc. The results also stated that the microstructure of the samples consisted of α-Mg phase and β-intermetallic (Mg17Al12) phase, and the built-up edge (BUE) formation was the dominant wear mode for all the cutting tools.